Cement is a hydraulically cured binder for building materials: mortar, concrete. It is usually a grey powder manufactured in full-scale industrial processes with the use of the following raw materials: limestone, clay, sand and ferrous components. Due to the high strength and hardness of concrete, cement is one of the most popular binders. By adding various ground additives, such as slag, fly ash or limestone, cements with different chemical and physical parameters can be produced.
Portland cement contains primarily clinker. Portland cement parameters depend on the raw material deposit type on the one hand and its preparation on the other. Therefore, cement activity depends on the mineral substances contained in the raw materials and its strength curve basically depends on the grinding ratio.
Due to the requirement to reduce the emissions of CO2, the particular advantages of Portland cement grades will only be used in special applications in the future.
Portland lime cement contains mainly clinker and finely ground limestone.
Portland fly-ash cement contains primarily clinker and the second main component is silica fly ash.
Portland-composite cement contains primarily clinker and a combination of such main ingredients as: silica fly ash, finely ground limestone or granulated blast furnace slag.
Blastfurnace cement contains primarily clinker and granulated blast-furnace slag.